Martin Chalfie, chair and professor of biological sciences at Columbia University, shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. Tsien for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP has become a fundamental tool in cell biology, developmental biology, genetics, neurobiology and the medical sciences. It has permitted scientists to study damaged cells in Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and genetic disorders. It also has many applications in industry. Chalfie has a Ph.D. in neurobiology from Harvard University.